Native American Dogs

Featured

http://www.techichi.org is my current blog. Please visit and look at the techichi slideshow gallery. I am not posting over here any more, so come visit my new blog!!!

Wherein I first push the idea of deer chihuahuas as possible direct descendents of the old techichis since there has been a virtually unbroken historical record of them from the conquest to today. Any apparent gap in their history is due to the lack of translation between Spanish and English during the late 19th to early 20th century.

Secondly, I push the idea of recognizing, recreating and/or devolving the “common dog” lines of the far west, where they still appear in phenotype, if not genotype.

Thirdly, I might get around to an exhaustive summary of known pre-conquest dog types of the Americas, just so the info is online in one convenient place.

Mystery of my Hairless Chihuahua- Solved!

I first started a blog of the same name in 2009, but on a different carrier.  I had recently come into a 3 month old, “Mexican Hairless Chihuahua”. I had known about these dogs for decades because my family took a vacation in Mexico the summer of 1955-56. We were driving down the Western side of Mexico to Mexico City, then returning through the inland route through Chihuahua. We spent a night in Mazatlan and saw some naked dogs on the streets. They were unique enough to remember when I encountered the name Mexican Hairless for this breed of dogs through looking at Diego Rivera’s mural at San Francisco State College. This enormous mural resides in the Diego Rivera Theater on that college’s campus. It must be 20’ high, by 50’ high. No photo I found goes all the way down the left hand side to the very corner, where the dogs are. I googled the dogs at some point and spent a few hours reading about them. I was intrigued and had vague wish to get one someday.

Diego-Rivera-Mural-SFstate

A year or two later, I saw an ad in a local online free classified ad including dogs. I wanted a small dog to replace my deceased “deer Chihuahua”, so I occasionally looked at dog ads. One day there was an ad that offered a “hairless Chihuahua” for $100. It was right in my own far SW-side neighborhood, so I went over there.

There were two of these pups both the solid gray/black color. One had longer legs, she had beautiful proportions. She looked like a deer, a deer Chihuahua without hair. Just when I got there, the breeder arrived and was extremely upset. She had been negotiating with animal control to get or keep a license for a kennel and had been refused. She had just come back from losing an appeal. At this moment, Animal control was coming out to get all except the legal number of dogs. She had only a 48 hours to remove the dogs. I quickly realized that if this dog went to animal control, it would have been grabbed up by the hairless rescue people, as they had priority for the hairless dogs that arrive at the pound- or the humane society. I had managed to see this dog before she was taken beyond my ability to get her from this back yard breeder – or puppy farm.  I felt like I had just short-circuited a series of shakeups before she was rehomed. As she was very high strung and insecure, I have always been glad she only had two homes, her breeder and ours.

i1035 FW1.1Now that I had her, I googled hairless Chihuahuas and hairless dogs, including Xoloitzquintles. I got a book, “Hairless dogs: the Naked Truth”. There were many directions to follow up on after reading that book.

First, I followed the gene itself and learned that it had been analyzed by a renowned scientist in Switzerland. Tosso Lieb who determined it was a semi-dominant gene that had appeared as a mutation in Mexico, at least 3 thousand years ago. This effectively cancelled any claims that any  hairless dogs were from China. Or Africa. Still, I was shocked, because the Chinese Crested’s descriptions on the AKC site that same day, said they were from China and were vermin killers who went with Chinese on boats to prevent the plague by killing rats in the 14 hundreds- except back then no one knew rats carried the plague, and other errors were also made. So that opened a skeptical side in me that needs to cut through the myths and another ??? about the AKC.

I was doing research on Chihuahuas too. I have several books on the origins of the breed. I was reading histories that mention naked dogs when the Spaniards arrived. I found an old book on kindle wherein  the author, Allan Glover of Harvard, writing at the beginning of the 20th century analyzed the literature and art of dogs in the history of America and got a very realistic map of what kind of native dogs lived where.

dog map 001

Native American Dog map

But the more I got information on Chihuahuas from the breed founders’ own words and overlaid them on the maps PFerd III made based on Glover’s work  I saw the Chihuahua breed founders were getting dogs from the area renowned for Techichi dogs, 10 pound dogs from far northern Mexico and Southwestern US from Texas to California, who all lived in the desert. So of course I had to pay more attention to techichi dogs -as well as all the other 10 pound small dogs occurring in every corner of North America. It was just the southwestern ones that were called Techichi, which was a Nahuatl disparaging word for the little dogs of the Chichimeca, barbarians of their far north.

300px-Uto-Aztecan_langs

I already knew that Itzquintle was the Nahautl word for their own dogs. I took an introductory course in Nahuatl on You Tube twice, because it came in two versions. I began to put the Itzquintle on the map Pferd III had made wherever there were Uto-Aztecan languages, of which Nahuatl was a major branch. This language family covers most of the America west of the Mississippi, except coastal California and the far north. Itzquintles were the common dog of the Nahuatl related tribes in America and mostly had short hair. They probably weren’t called Iztquintles locally no matter how close the language was to ancient Nahuatl, but since Mexico City was always the center of the Americas, whatever it was called at the time, it is convenient to use the classic Nahuatl terms to refer to the larger collective of the Uto-Aztecan language base.

By this time I had seen in several places, references that the Techichi dogs came in 3 varieties, Short hair, long hair, and hairless. This made sense to me, when I finally discovered an old woman in her advanced 80’s, another back yard breeder, I suppose, who had kept Mexican Hairless Chihuahuas since the 1950’s. I interviewed her a couple of times though she was in feeble health. She had been part of gatherings of Xolos  in Tucson, in the 50’s, but never joined the newly organizing Xolo club because they didn’t prefer or allow toy sized dogs. That first club died and she never tried to join the second xolo breed club either. Her stock came from the Tucson/Sonora Desert, (where they were known, even if uncommon, and recorded by Easterners since the 1850s).  She insisted the Xoloitzquintle name was an invented breed name by the breed club of the same name, and they had done a lot of refining in the in-club breeding.

She did not have Xoloitzquintles, she had Mexican Hairless, which was always the name, long before the Xoloitzquintle name was formalized. It still refers to the out of club hairless dogs. She told me that she grew up with the hairless dogs which used to be far more common around Tucson. Her grandmother had one. Just about every extended Mexican family had one, back when. This wasn’t much, but combined with all the other strands in this weaving, it was all fitting together, however loosely.

Hairless Chihuahua was  a modern name for the so-called Techichi dogs 9-12 lbs, that used to live in the northern deserts along the border, mostly inside today’s US boundaries. They used to be locally called “perros sin pelo’, or hairless dogs. Only the 9-12 pound range was known in Tucson since my breeder friend was born during the thirties, so I expect that since the techichis were of similar size, we had the same dog. This dog was not known as “techichi” by the locals, that was the Meshica pejorative term, but simply as perros sin pelo, because all the native dogs were 8-12 lbs in the first standard deviation, but had unlimited colors and short hair, long hair or – very little hair.

Thus, I achieved fulfillment in my quest for the truth about the hairless Chihuahua. Indeed! I also learned about the development of the Chihuahua and the Chinese Crested breeds within the AKC, the problems of all the big dog institutions, plus  so much about all the native dogs, that I expanded my blogs to include all these topics.

If you want to see what I have been doing on my new blog, go to  http://www.techichi.org

Techichis, Itzquintles and Dingos

Hi Folks

This is probably my last post on this blog. My transition to techichi.org is almost complete.The title of the blog, Techichis, Itzquintle and Dingos points to the major conclusion I have reached through the course of researching and writing this blog.

I learned how to blog on this blog.I started on google Blogger, and probably should have kept this blog over there. But moving it was a great learning experience in itself. I never did recover the momentum the Blogger blog built up, but I figured out what topics keep me thinking, researching, and writing-

When I started researching the title name of this blog, I didn’t even know dogblogs existed, let alone that there are some really smart people out there dog-blogging. Some of these people were doing the research I was interested in and they became excellent resources for me to use. Sure saved me a lot of researching and thinking, especially on dog genetics issues.

I eventually learned enough to figure out who to agree with and thus, my personal Philosophy of Dog was born. I learned how to sort out various Philosophies of Dogs and who held them, thus I came to a fairly cohesive personal view of Dog Politics.

In Dog Politics, the big guys are the AKC, the ASPCA, HSUS, PETA who are all out there to make money and provide their top administrations with high dollar jobs and highfalutin connections. The former likes to register their own gated community’s births  and the last three are the operators of all the major kill units in the dog world and still behave as though stray dogs are a plague and abused dogs make up most of the pet owning population. The kill shelters mostly deal with unpopular breeds and mutts. AKC breed clubs usually have a rescue unit to get their breed out of the local pound. they have private foster care systems in place and usually try to find new homes for their rescued breed.

These institutions’ own statistics show that the no kill movement has caused a huge dog recycling industry that operates just under the level of public awareness where “kill”  shelters trade dogs around to different parts of the country to fill local needs. At present, only 2% of all dogs in the US ever end up dead at the hands of the kill shelters run by aspca, hsus and peta and local government agencies.

The main thing ALL the above named institutions agree on, is that regular people should not breed their dogs. At all. Ever. Period. The latter three kind of ignore that the AKC and  other smaller dog registries absolutely OWN the right to breed dogs. No one else should have the right to breed except purebred dog owners in good standing with the AKC and maybe their breed clubs. People who breed their purebred dogs and do not participate in the the AKC are barred from ever changing their minds. Once out, always out. God should forbid you should want to breed mutts or crossbreed AKC dogs with other closely related AKC breeds. Such independence is not tracked, it is heresy.

I expect that I am a very small voice, and I know I carry no authority in the dog world whatsoever, but after having thought things through and reading several trusted sources, I have come to the conclusion that dog birth rates are falling everywhere, not just in the AKC. Although it is not well known, it is easily researchable that our politically correct view that no dog should be bred has caused a market shortage. That is, there are fewer dogs being bred in the USA than desired by the market, which in turn, causes other countries, particularly Mexico, to fill up the market with Mexican-bred dogs.

I finally reached the conclusion, that we need to purposefully breed mutts! Why mutts? Because they will tend to increase the heterogeneity of the mutt gene pool which could have several good outcomes. It is a counter to the hereditary problems that keep increasing in a majority of the AKC breeds of dogs. Mutts may all carry their quota of genetic problems, but their frequency drops as the likelihood of fewer bad recessives meeting up, drops.

I think people should develop local landrace dogs if they have one- ie the deer Chihuahuas of the southwest, previously known as Techichis or “short nosed dogs” . The main thing I think mutts should avoid is any extreme in conformation. Not too big. Not too small. But a good variation in size. No dwarfed legs, or flat faces or extremely curly tails. Any variation in coat color should be fine except breeding for merles. A large range of coat texture and lengths can be present, but also avoiding extremes.

I have been thinking a lot about phenotype vs genotype in dog breeds and come to one wild conclusion….

I guess what I am advocating is a kind of deliberate canalisation of dogs based on the basic dog archetypes such as Dingos, Itzquintles and Techichis.

Canalisation????!!!!!!

What the heck is that? Is it kosher to use this word in dogs at all? Can canalisation of a part of a species take a place at the center of the dog gene pool?

Well, if you care to follow me on this topic, I’ll see you over on my new blog where I will soon post something on the potential of a model like this applied to dogs or recognized to be present, perhaps, in some dog landraces already.

http://www.techichi.org/

Summer Spectacular Ballet in Oz.

I reposted  R’man’s post, because it is wonderful account of a rainstorm and a sunset, but also reminds me of a similar piece I wrote many years ago on Live Journal.

And here is my old article:

Summer Spectacular Ballet in Oz

The Emerald City is the home of some of the most avant garde arts in the universe. This weekend we were graced with this summer’s third appearance of Polychrome and all her siblings in their full glory dancing with the storm, the lightning and the rainbow. What a gala event.

We gathered outside, sitting in the plazas and the on the roof tops because this kind of event is too big to be contained in our largest arena. Although we in the Emerald City had the best view, no one in Oz missed the event; it could be seen everywhere.

The Ballet, as one might call it, was in 3 acts. In the first act, Oya made her appearance first, swooping through and sweeping the skies and spaces clean with her broom which creates long eddies and tight vortices dancing along the borders of climactic change. There is a feeling of electricity in the air, the hair stands out from the back of the neck. The winds shift and intensify. We are uncomfortable. A change is coming.

At the beginning of the second act, we hear thunder. Chango, Oya’s second husband, is responding to the lightning charge she gave him so many years ago. He rumbles and dances. Oya gave him Lightning to go with his rumbles, but she kept back the little spark that dictates where the lightning charge goes.

Oya is is always recognized as the choreographer in this dance. Chango may be the star, but Oya always tells him where to go. The Oya Chango duet, the highlight of pyrotechnics, the absolutely awe-inspiring dance of the storm breaks over us. The finale of this act is in the discharge of the energy in wind, rain, and lightning. We, the audience may allow ourselves to get wet or we may use umbrellas to stay kind of dry. We may join in the magnificent performance by dancing and participating like singing or playing instruments. This kind of summer spectacular is too big to just sit there. We can hardly contain the kids from running around outside, their faces up and mouths open.

After some time, the rain diminishes; the lightning and thunder go away. The 3rd act opens. Even while the ground runs with echoes of the rain, the skies open up and the Rainbow’s Children dance on the rainbow. Children love to step into the eddies of the run-off for the spinning, dizziness, it invokes as the sand washes away from their heels. Sometimes they fall over in their experience of moving backward while the water seems to stay still.

The rainbow snatches them up, whirls then around and lets them go. They plunk into the puddles on their butts and splash the water with their hands. The weird little critters that live underground come up choking for air, and children shriek to see their weird crawly forms. (No doubt they will tell darling Professor Wogglebug about them later this year and learn some lessons in how we all live together, from him).

This incredible National summer spectacular rarely happens more than a half dozen times a summer, so it is always a big event and the subject of many months of conversation. We do have some local practice meets in the spring, but the best stuff happens in the summer.

If you would visit Oz for a minute, go out barefoot in the runoff on your home street and splash in the puddles!
Love Glinda

 

Chinese Crested Dogs– What is their REAL origin?

Caitlin Williams:

Thanks for this reprise!

The true origins of the Chinese Crested are buried in the fake history Deborah Wood and Ida Garrett adopted for their 20th Century creation cobbled together from Peruvian Inca Orchid Stock as well as several other hairless varieties besides the the xolos, plus those fluff genes from some secret places!!! Ancient Chinese, my foot! And the breed, less than 50 years after its creation (Frankensteinian put-together is more like it) is going to hell with rampant hairiness.

The egos of those two women indulged in little to no research- they had no clue how to manage the restricted hair gene, as I prefer to call it. They made it up as they went along, but the gene itself got away from them. The restricted hair gene (HH or Hh) acts among other things, as a single coated gene in the CC, thus, completely coated single coated dogs are not unusual among CC breeders.

In fact, some breeders have given up pretending they know how to use the HH gene and are simply shaving their hairy cresteds- so now, for all practical purposes the CC “look” is nothing but a haircut! And those powderpuffs! (I have one) Their coats are impossible for an ordinary person to keep long and fluffy. I have to shave my little guy every 3 months or so to keep it under control!

This is a case of breeders gone mad! Ida Garrett was one to have the vision of creating her own dog breed and probably invented the name, but she got sidetracked by Chihuahuas and gave her stock, collected from all over, including Tucson, to Deborah Wood in a half-realized collection of HH gened dogs. Ida had a huge ego and desperately wanted to be known as the creator of her own breed, because being known for the re-creation of a breed is the ultimate ego trip for the dog fanciers of the time-1880′s- 1930′s. I do not know why she didn’t finish, but perhaps it was simply age.

Originally posted on The Retriever, Dog, & Wildlife Blog:

worlds-ugliest-dog

 

There’s a famous story about the strangest dogs in the world. Supposedly, in the days of the Chinese maritime golden age, the traders hauled small hairless dogs, which killed the rats that tried to hitch a ride on the junks. When food became scarce on board, the hairless dogs were eaten. The Chinese supposedly introduced hairless dogs to the Americas and Africa. One version of the story is that hairless dogs come from Africa originally, and the Chinese traders took them to these far off ports.

The dog I’m talking about is called the Chinese crested dog, the breed that dominates the World’s Ugliest Dog Competition. One variety is nearly hairless, except on the head, feet, and tail. The long hair on the head resembles a crest, hence the name. The other variety is called the powderpuff. It has really long, thick hair.  The hairless gene is dominant…

View original 423 more words

Genetically modified pig scares Chinese

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2156362/Genetically-modified-pig-terrifies-Chinese-city-residents-fear-mysterious-animal-escapee-nearby-research-centre.html

‘Genetic experiment’ terrifies Chinese city as residents fear mysterious animal is escapee from nearby research centre

By Rob Waugh

With a mohawk-style plume of hair and pink flesh covered in leopard-esque spots, the mysterious animal terrified locals in Xinxiang, Henan province

Xinxiang is close to several scientific research centres and a local medical school – and locals became convinced the creature was an experiment gone wrong, on the run from a nearby lab.

One witness said: ‘The pink skin makes it look just like pig gone wrong in some sort of genetic experiment.’

Xinxiang is close to several scientific research centres and a local medical school - and locals became convinced the creature was an experiment gone wrong, on the run from a nearby labXinxiang is close to several scientific research centres and a local medical school – and locals became convinced the creature was an experiment gone wrong, on the run from a nearby lab
One witness said: 'The pink skin makes it look just like pig gone wrong in some sort of genetic experiment'One witness said: ‘The pink skin makes it look just like pig gone wrong in some sort of genetic experiment’

But police say the dog is actually a pedigree breed called a Chinese crested hairless dog is a pet – and expensive.

‘It is definitely a dog, and quite an expensive one at that,’ said a spokesman.

 

But police say the dog is actually a pedigree breed called a Chinese crested hairless dog is a pet - and expensive

But police say the dog is actually a pedigree breed called a Chinese crested hairless dog is a pet – and expensive

The “Purebred Dog” Fallacy

.

Yes, I am saying that there is a tremendous fallacy connected to purebred dogs. That is the fallacy of no new blood. No new dna for 50 or more generations  would not be a problem if there were enough founding fathers to keep all the  gene pool options in play and if all the original founding fathers’ dna  was still in the blood of at least some of the descendents. We know from healthy wild populations that that magic number is about 100 unrelated founding fathers. With a number that large, all the animals in the breeding pool can afford to lose some dna from their own lines, but still expect it to be in the gene pool as a whole.  All the animals can remain unrelated to any other individual except those of their own founding lines, even if some “line breeding” or over representing a certain stud was done.

The fallacy of pure breeding is to think a founding population of 10 possibly unrelated animals is enough to close the registry in perpetuity to any but the founders’ progeny. While there is a certain homogeneity that will define the breed for several generations before problems show up. It is first inevitable that in 20-30 generations every animal in the gene pool will have the same founding fathers, and all dogs will be cousins of varying closeness and second, due to the natural attrition of dna when dogs are bred, it is inevitable that in a small founding population, dna, genes, and  important  alleles, will be lost too.

Think about it. Suppose the founding population was 10 dogs, 5 females and 5 males. Each one of the breedings from those 5 pairs will discard 50% of the parental dna in the new zygote. In a litter, it is rarely the same 50% in each zygote, so most likely, one of the siblings will have the gene or allele any another pup is missing.  If all the siblings are used for breeding at least once, then the gene pool has a better chance of keeping all the genes in play longer, when there are fewer than 100 founding fathers.

One of the “rules” of purebreeding  is to delete all pups from the gene pool who are not typey enough or show an unwanted trait. This means that sooner or later, dna will be lost to the line when only one or two pups in a litter are bred. If the total gene pool has 100 or more founders, this attrition will still happen in individual lines, but it will not affect the entire breed. If a line in such a breed gets stale, there will be plenty of outcrosses available within the breed as a whole.

In cases of breeds founded with less than 100 individuals before the studbooks were closed, where inbreeding or “line breeding”  is routinely used, and all flawed pups are culled, the attrition rate of the total founders’ dna is accelerated.

The SW Vurmer Example:

Take a hypothetical breed, similar to my favorite landrace dogs,we’ll call the Southwestern Vermin Killer, aka the Vurmer, which is really based on a particular litter in the late 19th century, in which each individual was notorious for the number of vermin it killed. The pups mostly had a certain size, say 14-18 pounds,  similar coat colors and patterns,  say fawn or reddish with white bellies.  And big ears that stand up well and can be focused to hear the vermin better.  Since the people always needed better vermin killers, all the neighbors bred to the best male, “Primo”, the champion vurminater for many years in the very popular vermin killing contests of the area. And the females from Primo’s litter were all bred to other local mutts noted for vermin pouncing. So were his parents.  The best vermin catchers were bred to the best vermin catchers. The people carried on for a few generations, and noticed that if  one of the original litter esp. Primo, was in both the sire and dam’s pedigrees, then the pup had a higher chance of looking and maybe performing as well as Primo did.

A few of the Vurmer breeders decided to join the AKC and started a breed club in 1920. They registered only the preferred type of  Vurmers  and eventually  chose 50 foundation  members who best exemplified the breed (and  were mostly related to each by  the original litter’s breedings) and joined the AKC. From that point on only the registered progeny could breed with each other. The original 50 Vurmers, because they were already loosely related, actually amounted to 30 complete Vurmer genetic individuals or rather, 30 distinct ancestors, although the genes were all mixed up in all of the dogs by the time they closed the registry.

For many doggy generations, these little dogs did OK. Of course, there were always culls, some of them obviously extremely affected by the previously unknown pairing of two homozygous genes which were deeply buried in the original stock. Everyone was trying to breed to the original Primo type, so a lot of line breeding was encouraged and practiced. During the 1950’s, few breeders looked past 4 or 5 generations, but they knew that most of the dogs went back to Primo and his siblings,  and had been bred to look and be like Primo, himself. In fact, if a 30 generation pedigree could have been done in the 1960’s, some individuals would have been as high as 70% and more of Primo’s own genes. But since they were just doing 4-5 and exceptionally, 10 generation pedigrees, they could not calculate this. Also, some previously rare diseases were becoming far more common, and those dogs had to be culled  from the genepool, too.

The only other problem was that due to such strict culling, by the 1980’s there were only 15 remaining full genetic sets of genes from the original stock, although no one in the breed knew of- or even guessed- that such a thing had happened. The rest of the genes were culled and/or lost through the zygote attrition. Of course, by then, the Vurmer was extremely consistent in both looks and temperament. But.  It was becoming known that you needed a vet on staff to keep one alive past 6 years old. All kind of ailments were showing up from bad kidneys to bad heart valves and those eye-leak issues that left the stains, and nervous temperaments, too. Some people gave up on the show ring Vurmers and returned to the working Vurmers and as a result, the high of 18,000 Vurmers registered in 1994 has declined precipitously since- (although that has also been the pattern for the vast majority of other breeds, as well). The demands of the show ring were showing in that the  Vurmers of the 1990’s were smaller and more fine boned than Primo was, but the breeders and judges liked the look, even though the sporting Vurmers claimed that the show ring Vurmers wouldn’t recognize a vermin, if it bit them.

The standard was also changed to promote the more deerlike look. By 2010, the Vurmers genome is down to 6 complete individuals  among 1,500 registered Vurmers. Only people willing to pay for cesareans are still in the Vurmer ring, although the UKC is allowing the working Vurmers to show their stuff and that type is definitely more robust than the ones in the show ring.

And the Vurmers are better off than the Icelandic Collies for instance, who have a total about 3-4 complete individuals amongst their 1,500 registered individuals.

People are kicking and screaming and denying the situation now, but when the population genetics is done on their breed, they too, will start freaking out at how few founders’ genes are left in most dog populations of imported or designed breeds, such as the Chinese Crested, which no one can deny was invented from the 1930’s to the 1950’s with a very limited stock of founders.

Why is 100 founding individuals the cut off and not 50, or 30? If I could do the math, and you could understand it if I did, population genetics has a formula that calculates the attrition of genes from a closed population times the number of generations until every member has, say,  6% or more of their genome in common, which is the equivalent of 1st cousins breeding to each other. It is well known that 1st cousin breeding in people quickly results in terrible degeneration of the descendants if practiced- especially for more than one generation.

The Icelandic Collie, when it breeds, is genetically breeding to a sibling or parent or child. That is how many genes they have in common and how few other genes there are in their gene pool other than the shared ones. I predict the breed will die out, if a massive outcross program is not tried soon.

Breeding for Teacups is Breeding for Greed.

Someone on a list I subscribe to put up a link to a teacup puppy operation.  This person commented on how cute the puppies were and everyone else oohed and aahed.

In a move that could get me kicked off this list, I wrote the following:

“The puppy is absolutely adorable, but will be extremely fragile and prone to high vet bills. Chis of that size usually do not last past a couple of years old, and  have a lot of vet bills, that is if the pup is under 4 pounds at adulthood. Let’s hope she makes it to at least  the 4 pound level by adulthood.

That is just too extreme in size. I can give you a lot of links to support what I am saying and it has also been my personal experience. I can tell you what is going on in that kennel.

And it reminds me of a sad story of greed gone wild. And how many breeding dogs you need to produce adequate numbers of teacup puppies.

I know a woman who bred for teacup Chis, Yorkies and Poms and various crosses of the three. She sold them for $2,000 and up. She lived just up the street from me. She eventually got her operation shut down by the authorities and faced charges in court for her unhealthy breeding practices, and selling sickly dogs to people and hoarding because she had so many dogs. All her breeding dogs were removed in a scandal that hit the newspapers, and the the dogs were sent to humane societies all over the country. In the end, they did not send her to jail and considered her to be a hoarder. She was only allowed to keep a couple of her Chis- after they had been fixed.

I saw her recently at a store and we chatted quite a bit. She was so happy I would talk dog with her at all as she has been shunned by all dog people since then. She virtually told me that she knew the pups were unhealthy and short lived, but  people want them.  AND, she could get more money for a teacup sized pup.  She had to keep literally hundreds of dogs in order to get a enough salable teacups, to make a handsome living, which she did. The ones around 4 pounds still need caesarians to deliver, so she ran up a huge vet bill, until they cut her off. But slighter larger dogs often have a runt, so….

She was breeding for runts, and the ones that were not runts were harder to sell, because the local newspaper will not allow more than two puppy sales a year from one telephone number. At the end, before she got busted, she was using throwaway phones to get around it, but still had hundreds of oversized Chis at her kennel. In fact, she had accumulated 883 dogs by the time the county busted her for many other reasons besides hoarding. She was not strictly a hoarder, though that became her defense, but she just could not sell the normal and oversized size dogs as fast. And she needed many breeding animals to get a few runts. Her web page, ‘Tucson Teacups’ was taken over by the Humane Society, and they left a page that said it was shut down.

I bought a normal size Chihuahua from her (thru the classified ads) 10 years before her operation was shut down. My Chi, a deer type, turned out to weigh 10 pounds. I asked her about the teacups and she said a lot of them grew to be 4-5 pounds after all. And if someone complained, she just said it was impossible to guarantee the pups would grow up to be less than 4 pounds.

I think that is what the company in the link could be doing, too.

The fact is, teacups can’t be bred. They often don’t even make it to breeding age. They have to breed 4-5 pound dogs and look for runts. Because Chis can throw pups larger than themselves or smaller than themselves, there is ALWAYS a second operation to sell the bigger ones off the teacup website.

Qualzucht

This video, “Pedigreed Dogs Exposed” is an extremely important expose of serious health problems with purebred dogs registered with kennel clubs in England and the Americas.
This page will present the arguments for recognizing these problems and the larger, philosophical issue of qualzucht, a German word literally meaning “torture breeding” but referring to enshrining dangerous and unhealthy conditions in breeds, such as the extreme flat faces in the current pugs and bulldogs. which cause the animals an inability to regulate their body temperature.

At this year’s Crufts, the ultra-most chichi dog show ever, 15 breeds were put on a list to be monitored for dangerous conditions as of March 1, 2012: Basset Hound, Bloodhound, Bulldog, Chow Chow, Clumber Spaniel, Dogue De Bordeaux, German Shepherd Dog, Mastiff, Neapolitan Mastiff, Pekingese, Shar Pei, St Bernard, French Bulldog, Pug and Chinese Crested. Several dogs were publicly flunked.
The Chinese Crested, as a slightly transformed techichi, is on this list and so the relevant issues such as lethal dominants will be discussed in these pages.

probably a ‘Techichi’ dog

The Techichi dog is an antidote to the kind of inbreeding found in almost every kennel club breed. These dogs are usually bred by their owners and are almost always bred to unrelated dogs. This is the opposite of inbreeding or pure breeding and it has some advantages and disadvantages which are discussed on other pages.